While Spiders use 4 hover motor and 1 thrust motor to maintain the simplicity of the design and shape as well as to facilitate in the handling and maintenance and also avoid the failures of electronic systems to be easily controlled.
inspired by glider, quad- rotor drones and aerodynamic shape of the body of whales. Combined with the inverted V-tail is the basic form of the design of this aircraft. Simplicity of design is the main target of this project. Using strigh tapered wings for efficiency of long range flights and cruise performance. Aircraft body shape is rounded rectangle with aerodynamic chord organic lines that ballooned in the middle and tapered at the nose and tail that can accommodate payloads in its. The main purpose of the empennage is to give stability to the aircraft. Inverted v tail is used for a simple dynamic control surface wich combine fungtions of elevator and rudder.
Created aircraft body structure as light as possible and construction as simple as possible. Using material carbon fiber monocoque on the fuselange makes it very strong and rigid that was inspired by formula one car cahassis structure. On the inside of the structure monocoque strut by carbon fiber sheet on the middle. Fuselage consists of two parts: the main fuselage and rear fuselage. Section wing consists of the right wing and left wing are made of epoxy fiberglass shell material on the surface and support by carbon fiber sheet on the structure. V-tail part consists of the right and left are made of solid epoxy fiberglass material with sandwich structure which used a fiberglass shell on the surface and foam of the core.
Lading gear made simple by using only carbon fiber stick on the four sides of the part. On the cargo using flaping methode that was support by hydraulic mechanism. battery module was made to eassy swappable that placed on the head of the fuselage and covered by a canopy hatch. Entire parts of the module can be assembel and disassembled very easily and the size of each module is less than 2 meters.
EXPLANATION OF DESIGN DETAILS
The design of the landing gear is made lightweight and thin but very strong and hard. For that, carbon fiber is used as its material. Lading gear made simple by using only carbon fiber stick on the four sides of the part which can be rotated and lock in 135 degrees for ease of handling and transport. Root of landing gear stick placed closer on the CG of fuselage, its placed almost on the center of the vertical body to make it stable and steady when vertikal takeoff and landing. Using four hand corner of the landing gear makes it very stable located on the ground in any situation. Landing gear was fixed, no more retract merchanism. Its just rotate by hand. Retract mechanism make it more heavier, therefore surface shape of the landing gear makes thined to decrease drag.
To be Able to Operate safely flying with moderate rain , all the electronic components are located inside the fuselage. Each of comparment, component, hatch cover and bay line coated and covered by elastic rubber sealant to avoid and prevent water leak. Motor brushless, ESC and actuator servo selected by waterproof calibre.
The Aircraft designed very friendly for modulatiry. Components that can be removed are : main fuselage, rear fuselage, right wing, left wing, v tail righ and left, multiorotor arm, carbontube wingspar, spinner, camera compartment, battery and propeller. The landing gear can be able to rotate as linear as fuselage when shipping. Each part of module size less than 2 meter. Space size for ship handling not to large and very compatible in every transport methode. The box size is used to carry is 19.8M lenght x 0.72M wide x 0.5M high.
Payload and cargo concept
Payload size is 450 x 350 x 200mm dan maximum up to 520 x 350 x 250mm, is coincident with the center of gravity. Payload cargo has ability accessible from lower side of the aircraft. cargo concep is flap and lock and Support by small cylinder hydrolic 100N mechanism, its provide up to 10 Kg torque to make smooter transitions to open the cargo bay. Its very usefull to shocks absorb hard impact when opening the cargo bay. at the bottom section of cargo bay layered by softfoam to makesure the payload is safty from vibrations and tied using a rubber belt to make it restrained.
Ease of handling
This Aircraft has the primary control surfaces, the Aileron (Roll Control) at main wings, Elevator (Pitch Control) and Rudder (Yaw Control) at invert V-tail. NACA 4412 has been used for the main wing, and NACA 009 for V-tail. Its has a traditional characteristics flight mode that make it easyer and familiar to controled and handling. When hovering ailerons are down to reduce wing surface and optimize propeller airflow during hovering. When transitions mode form hover to cruise the quad rotor still spinning and reduce slowly and than stop spinning until target cruise speed obtained. Center of gravity is coincident with center of lift, but can be adjusted by displacing the batteries longitudinally.
Weight and size
MTOW is set less than 25kg and each of part must be considered by weight and power. Electonic and propultion system selected as following VTOL aircraft required.
HOVER ELECTRICOptions 1 (For High Performance)
KDE7215XF-135 motor hover 135kvKDE-CF275-DP 2blade 27.5x8.9inc Carbon PropellerKDEXF-UAS95HVC 95A ESC(total weight combinations 3.2kg)(Max thrust 14.5Kg, 69.9A, 3103W, 5070Rpm, efficiency 4.7g/W at 44.4V)
Options 2 (For High Efficency)
T-Motor U10 Plus 100KVT-Motor 2blade 30x10.5inc Carbon PropellerT-Motor Flame 80A ESC(total weight combinations 2.9Kg)(Max thrust 11.5Kg, 31.4A, 1758W, 3604Rpm, efficiency 6.57g/W at 44.4v)
CRUISE ELECTRICOptions 1 (For High Performance)
KDE8218XF-120 motor cruise 120kvKDE-CF275-TP 3blade 27.5x8.9inc Carbon PropellerKDEXF-UAS95HVC 95A ESC(total weight combination 1.1kg)(Max Thtust 18.3Kg, 72.1A, 3201W, 5020Rpm, efficency 5.73g/W at 44.4v)
Options 2 (For High Efficency)
T-Motor U12 90/100KVT-Motor 3blade 29x9.5inc Carbon PropellerT-Motor Flame 80A ESC(total weight combination 1.1kg)(Max thrust 13.6Kg, 42.6A, 2044W, 3255Rpm, efficiency 6.65g/W at 44.4V)
Actuator : (waterproof)- servo savox SW-1210SG + pushrood and accesories (2x aeleron, 2x vtail)(Total weight combinations 0.4 kg)
Battery :- for 3Kg payload / 100km range (100km + 20km reserve) total 120km Gen Ace Tattu 6s (22.2v) 28000mah 25c (x2) each 3413g (configuration 2xseri Total 12s 44.4v 28000mah 25c 6.82kg)
- for 5Kg payload / 60km range (60km + 10km reserve) total 70km Gen Ace Tattu 6s (22.2v) 22000mah 25c (x2) each 2490g (configuration 2xseri Total 12s 44.4v 22000mah 25c 4.98kg)
Mass structure :- main fuselage 1.6kg- rear fuselage 0.7kg- right wing 1.0kg- left wing 1.0kg- v tail 0.5kg- cargo bay machanism 0.6kg- landing gear 0.5kg- multirotor arm 0.5kg- camera compartment 0.1kg
total mass structure 6.5kg)
size of aircfaft:- Total length 2304mm- Total Wingspan 4084mm- max diameter fuselage 446mm
Fail safe components to prevent catastrophic failure
XL96 Skycat parachute, located over the gravity center and at carbon tube wingspar. The system is covered with hatch strong magnet cover, that full up when the parachute is deployed.
Safety provisions: limit time on ground with rotors spinning
When the plane hit the ground, propeller rotation will slow down gradually and slowly then stopped.For the cruise propeller blades will be retained by the base V-tail and would not touch the ground.
PERFORMANCE AND EFFICIENCY
Options 1: For high performance
4x KDE7215XF-135 motor hover 135kv from KDEdirect paired with 27.5x8.9inc carbon propeller, each motor produce 14.5Kg thrust at full throttle with 69.9A, 3103W, 5070Rpm and Efficiency 4.7g/W at 44.4v. weigh each motor just 550g (640g with wire and bullet connector). Its very powerfull if compared with (standart ratio thrust hover MTOM x2 / 4 motor = (24.5x2)/4 = 12.25Kg) but spend much energy with efficiency 4.7g/W. however its just for hover than less than 10 minutes flight. with medium size propeller 27inc diameter its must be good to reduce drag at cruise flight.
for chruise motor, KDE8218XF-120 motor cruise 120kv from KDEdirect paired 3blade 27.5x8.9 carbon fiber propeller produce up to 18.3Kg max thrust at full throttle with 72.1A, 3201W, 5020Rpm and efficiency 5.73g/W at 12s. With wingload of aircraft 22kg/m2 and wings area 1.1m2 Its must be easy when transition from hover to cruise (standart ratio thrust of cruise 2/3 x MTOM = 2/3 X 24.5 = 16.3Kg) Its very good for acceleration.Options 2: For high Efficiency
4x u10 plus 100kv motors brushless from T-Motor paired with 30x10.5 inc carbon fiber propeller, each motor produce up to 11.55Kg max thrust at full throttle with 31.4A, 1758W, 3604Rpm and efficiency 6.57g/W at 44.4v. Weigh each motor just 500g, litte bit less than standart ratio hover thrust (12.25Kg), total full thrust produce from 4 rotor is about 46.2kg but, its give 1.89 weight ratio and still relevan to lift the aircraft with hight efficency at 6.57g/W. Its very efficient weigh and power brushless motor compared than U11 witch very heavier (740g each) even thrust power almost same (12.4Kg each).
for chruise motor, U12 90kvor 100kv from T-Motor paired 3blade 29x9.5 carbon fiber propeller produce up to 13.6Kg max thrust at full throttle with 42.6A, 2044W, 3255Rpm and efficiency 6.65g/W at 44.4v. With wingload of aircraft 22kg/m2, wings area 1.1m2 and MTOM 24.5Kg Its must be deep controlled when transitions flight and require frequently full throttle. but if until taerget cruise speed obtained, all will be fine and its will get more efficiency for long range flight.Link Componen
KDE7215XF-135 motor hover 135kv https://www.kdedirect.com/prod...
KDE8218XF-120 motor cruise 120kv https://www.kdedirect.com/coll...
KDE-CF275-DP 2blade carbon Propeller 27.5x8.9inc https://www.kdedirect.com/coll...
KDE-CF275-TP 3blade carbon Propeller 27.5x8.9inc https://www.kdedirect.com/coll...
KDEXF-UAS95HVC 95A ESC https://www.kdedirect.com/coll...
T-Motor U10 Plus 100KV http://www.rctigermotor.com/ht...
T-Motor U12 90/100KV http://www.rctigermotor.com/ht...
T-Motor Flame 80A http://www.rctigermotor.com/ht...
T-Motor 2blade 30x10.5inc Carbon Propeller http://www.rctigermotor.com/ht...
T-Motor 3blade 29x9.5inc Carbon Propeller http://www.rctigermotor.com/ht...
Servo Savox SW-1210SG waterproof coreless http://www.savoxusa.com/Savox_...
Gen Ace Tattu 6s 28000mah 25c http://www.genstattu.com/ta-25...
Gen Ace Tattu 6s 22000mah 25c http://www.genstattu.com/ta-25...