Hello LocalMotors Community...Here is the Submission from our team, DTECH-ENGINEERING for Airbus...*** Please download the attached "DELIVERABLES - HERO V1.0.pdf" for better organized and structured deliverables***
We are glad to provide the answer for the given challenge by Airbus for designing the Cargo Drone capable of delivering medical goods in emergency situation. We are truly honored to take part in changing the world, particularly in delivering medical goods. Finally, we present the design of highly efficient and powerful drone for cargo transport.
· Wing Span : 4,800 mm
· Aircraft Length (max) : 1,958 mm
· Height (max) : 738mm
· Fixed Wing Quantity (for Cruise) : 1
· Hover Motor Quantity : 4 (KDE 7215XF 135KV - 555g each. 2,220g in total).
· Hover Propeller Quantity : 4 (KDE-CF275-DP - 117.4g each. 469.6g in total).
· Push Motor Quantity : 2 (Hacker A50-12L Tornado V3 (455g each. 910g in total)
· Push Propeller : 2 (12" APC Propeller ( pitch speed 193 km/h)
· Battery : MaxAMPS 11,000 LiPo 44.4 (energy density 193 Wh/kg)
· Airfoil Type : NACA 009
· Fix Angle of Attack : 3°
· Stall Speed : 20 m/s (72 km/h) >> @35° flap
· Stall Speed to Pitch Speed Ratio : 193/72 =
· Maximum Trust : 2*10.9kg =
· Max Trust to Weight Ratio : 0.87
· Cruise Speed : 28 m/s (100.8 km/h) @-5° flap >> Minimum Trust Required
· Max Speed (Emergency Delivery) : 35 m/s (126 km/h) @-12° flap
2. General Inspiration of Design
- Fig #2 - General Inspiration of Design
- Fig #2a - Parts I
- Fig #2b - Parts II
- Fig #2c - Parts III
Our drone’s design was inspired by physiology of mackerel tuna and shark. Both fishes have been experiencing thousands of years of evolution. From the mackerel tuna, we studied its streamline anatomy. Furthermore, we applied the streamline shape of mackerel tuna body on the drone, thus it can move swiftly, efficiently and produces the highest coefficient lift. On the front, we surveyed the solid shark anatomy that has superior strength. Therefore, the drone that we design has a powerful build.
We focused on eliminating the possible problems that are caused by both side and front wind. In order to achieve our objectives, the drone is designed as thin as possible to reduce the effect from both side and front wind. The mackerel tuna and shark are the inspiration for the fuselage shape design. We combined the forte of the two animals and base the design philosophy on them. Mackerel tuna has a very good and efficient maneuver while shark has a solid body and powerful strength.
HERO’s design reflects the combination of the two fish. We would like the design to reflect a mackerel tuna while the maneuvering with as little drag as possible and like a shark powerful enough to carry the payload with long durability for years illustrated by the strong physiology of shark.
HERO V1.0 has strong landing gears that is capable of absorbing up to 3g of force. The main purpose of the landing gears is for vertical take-off and landing (VTOL). It also has 4 wheels with integrated shock absorber that can also be used as the center of gravity (CoG) meter. Since the CoG position is crucial in an aircraft, the HERO V1.0 incorporated a unique feature called "Adjustable CoG". The feature works when the payload CoG is not placed right in the center; several battery positions can be selected for optimum CoG adjustment.
-Fig #4a - Waterproofness - Maintenance Cover
- Fig #4b - Waterproofness - Payload Enclosure
There are three parts which require waterproofing:
The maintenance cover is only opened when the drone requires maintenance. The cover is attached on the main fuselage using screws. The waterproofness on this area was obtained by overlapping the flush surface and silicone sealing.
Waterproofness for the electronic connection is achieved by the built-in rubber seals on the connectors.
- Fig #5a - Locking Detail
- Fig #5b - Locking Method (How its work)
The shipping concept of HERO V1.0 is pretty simple due to its modularity. It can be disassembled into 7 separate sections. Each part’s dimension is less than 2 meters. Both the assembly and disassembly process can be done by hands without any tool (tool-less).
- Fig #6 - Handling
Hero V1.0 is very easy to handle. The maximum space required for transportation is only 1.910 × 0.615 × 1 meter. It is possible for the aircraft to be transported by two average peoples easily and can be loaded into a medium-size car.
The weight of HERO V1.0 has met all the regulations issued by Airbus.
A failure can happen in every time and everywhere. Therefore, the HERO V1.0 has a fail-safe feature to help it face catastrophic events which are:
1. Landing Gear >> In case of emergency landing when the hover propellers fail and VTOL is not possible, the landing gears are designed to be able to absorb up to 3 g of impact.
2. Emergency Parachute >> For emergency landing case when all propellers, i.e., hover and cruise propellers, fail.
3. Payload Dual Locking System >> To ensure the payload is safe thus it would not accidentally fall in any circumstances. A manual dual locking system is available for secured lock.
4. Battery Dual Locking System >> First locking system on the battery is the locking system that locks the battery enclosure to the mainframe. The second locking system is installed on the battery storage door to ensure its safety.
Safety is always the main priority within our design. An illustration showing the safety for when the propeller is spinning on the ground is shown in the figure below.
- Fig #11a - Structural Concept - Internal Structure
-Fig #11b - Structural Concept - Components Location
- Fig #11c - Structural Concept - Location of Supplied Space Reservations from the Ignition Kit
The figure below shows the main structure of this drone. We have studied various motor-blade combinations. All of the standard components have each reserved space inside the fuselage. We also add a pair of fixed wing, horizontal stabilizer and a rudder.
For the internal structure, we have designed the HERO V1.0 with the superior quality and durability which will ensure years of operation. Thanks to an internal ribbing that added the structure’s strength significantly without adding significant weight. A carbon fiber is used as the primary material. The internal ribbing can be manufactured by laser cutting process of solid sheet carbon fiber. It will be cut for shaping and produce a "puzzle like" assembly feature which will then be bonded together to create the internal structure. For the outer shell, it will be manufactured by vacuum forming under a high temperature. The external shell and the internal structure were bonded together afterward.
The drone’s body was contained so many devices which help it to operate accordingly. The ignition kit devices are positioned inside the drone’s body as shown in the following figure.
- Fig #12 Payload System
-Fig #12a Payload Bay Dimension
The payload is accessible from the bottom of the aircraft for loading and unloading purposes. It is secured by a manual locking system. The payload box is waterproof when closed. The payload bay dimension is 354×204×454 mm.
-Fig #13 Isometric View
- Fig #14 - Analysis (CFD & FEA)
- Fig #Add 1 - Future Development (Shorter Wingspan)
- Fig #Add 2 - Future Development (Shorter Wingspan, Reduce Transportable Dimension)
- Fig #Add 3 - Hover Motor Adapter On Wing
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