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Overview for MARTROPOLIS, THE FIRST CITY ON MARS

MARTROPOLIS, THE FIRST CITY ON MARS ABSTRACT Martropolis, the First City on Mars proposal tries to solve all the challenges that humankind needs to solve to build the first living habitat on Mars for a million inhabitants. But basically, Mars environment is the main challenge to solve: atmosphere is too aggressive, full of dust storms, the climate is too cold and the pressure is quite low. Also, water is needed for life and local minerals must be used as raw materials to build first Martian structures. Therefore, we need to obtain directly for Mars the key components that allows life and that are basic to solve these challenges: Raw Materials for construction, Water, Air (Oxygen), Energy (electricity and a fuel) and Food. With all these elements obtained directly from Mars, after we can develop dwellings and a transport system to create Martropolis, the Fist City on Mars. Location of Martropolis is the first thing to do. Martropolis City is going to be located in a crater in the center of Mawrth Vallis and connected to the main channel. Coordinates of the center of the Crater are: Latitude 22°23'21.40"N and Longitude 15°24'16.31"O. The crater shape is a circumference of 16km of radius, an area of 810 km2 and a perimeter of 100kms. Martropolis crater is flat and protected from solar winds and aggressive atmosphere events as it is depressed 150m from the outside of the crater. Martropolis City is going to occupy a circle of 3.55km of radius and an area of 40 km2 and it is going to be home for first one million habitants of Mars. Martropolis city Urbanization Plan divides it in four quadrants. The first one is “The Residential Multi-Dwelling Zone”, where we are going to build enough dwellings to provide shelter to all the families that are going to stablish in Martropolis. The second one is “The Leisure and Commercial Zone”, which is going to be used to deploy all domes that are going to be focused on commercial and leisure activities. The third one is called “The Industrial and Research Zone”, which is going to be where Mars citizens are going to work in industrial (mostly mining) and research companies. The fourth quarter is going to be focused in “Agriculture (Hydroponic Farms) and Environmental” activities. Also, there is going to be a “Martropolis Downtown”, where is going to be established the Municipality of Martropolis and all government domes that will allow that law and order will be a premise in Martropolis. These quarters are going to be interconnected by tubes that will allow high speed transportation between quarters and also will supply fresh air (ventilation), fresh water, hydrogen fuel and also electricity. In order to create shelter and a transport system in the city, soil and geology in Mawrth Vallis provide us with Raw Materials that could be used to build first infrastructures in Mars: Kaolin (Al2Si2O5(OH)4), Alunite (KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6), and Jarosite (KFe3+3(OH)6(SO4)2). These materials will be used to define a geopolymer concrete, a Martian concrete that can be 3D printed in order to build infrastructure: Domes and Transport & Supply Tubes. Both of them will be built using 3d printing in situ technology applied by robotic self-driven civil works machinery. These domes allow Mars citizens to be protected against outside aggressive environment and also allow them to build a friendly environment inside with similar conditions that exists in Earth: a cool temperature and a normal pressure. After we have found a solution to create shelter and a transport infrastructure for Martropolis, the next step is to obtain Water directly in Mars. Best solution is to obtain it from underground in the Hydrosphere of Mars. Therefore, we need to install drilling machines that drills from the surface a shaft till we reach the liquid water stored underground and allows to extract water and store it at the surface in a previously heated and pressurized dome. Also, we are going to generate two other components that are going to be needed in our city, oxygen and hydrogen. The way to do this is using electrolysis to obtain from water both components. Oxygen will we used to generate a fresh air atmosphere inside the water facility dome, that will be connected by tubes infrastructure to other domes by ventilation galleries. Hydrogen will be stored in tanks and would be the alternative way to generate energy to the photovoltaic solar panels using fuel cells. Hydrogen is going to be used also as fuel by high speed trains and self-driven vehicles that connects domes and allow people to moves between them through the tubes systems. Almost as important as water, is Energy. There are going to be several ways to obtain energy to our city. First method to obtain energy is directly using photovoltaics system at the top of the domes, generating electricity that could be stored in batteries. Second way to generate energy is creating hydrogen as a solar fuel obtained using Artificial Photosynthesis. The purpose of Artificial Photosynthesis is to produce a fuel from sunlight that can be stored conveniently and used when sunlight is not available, by using direct processes, that is, to produce Hydrogen as a solar fuel. Hydrogen is going to be the fuel that we are going to use in Martropolis. Hydrogen is going to be stored in tanks as a chemical energy in order to be used in fuel cells and transformed to electricity when needed using fuel cells. Hydrogen is going to be used in our city whenever we are not able to produce electricity from photovoltaics panels and also as a power source for our trains and vehicles transport systems. Our Martropolis City also needs Food Facilities which are going to be installed also inside specific domes which a controlled atmosphere (pressure and temperature) trying to simulate Earth’s environment. Domes are also going to protect crops from radiation. Farming techniques that are going to be used in Martropolis are going to be Hydroponics. Hydroponics is a subset of hydroculture, the method of growing plants without soil, using mineral nutrient solutions in a water solvent. Food facilities will also include some specific farms to grow cattle and fish in order to supply Martropolis with meat and fish and not only vegetables. Dwellings are going to be basic for citizens of Martropolis in order to generate a friendly environment that allows people to relax and live with their families. As the basic infrastructure element that we are going to deploy in Martropolis is a dome, each of these elements is going to be a collective dwelling infrastructure where families are going to live in private departments to develop their own private life. Also, they are going to have collective facilities for leisure and community services, where community life is going to be developed. As previously mentioned, these dwellings are going to be stablished inside semi-spherical domes of 30m high and 2,830 sqm at the bottom level. Each dome is going to have between 6-8 levels, approximately 8,500 sqm per dome focused on private spaces for families (bedrooms, private lavatories and living rooms) and 6,500-8,500 sqm for community services (kitchens, leisure spaces, dining rooms, life support systems - water & energy and pressure & heat, etc). Transport in Martropolis is going to be able using a dense system of semi-cylinder shape tunnel connections between domes that we have called “tubes”. A group of tubes than connects different domes will conform a net. Tubes and nets are going to be the basic units of transport infrastructure of the city and will be like veins and arteries of Martropolis for our citizens. There is going to be two kinds of nets in Martropolis, the “Primary Net” which is going to be used for long distance transport in the city between quadrants and with Martropolis Downtown, in the centre of the city. High capacity and fast trains are going to be used in order to guarantee a high frequency connectivity between different parts of the city. Primary Net is going to have stations in the borders of each quadrant that will connect with Secondary Net. “Secondary Net” is going to be used for interconnect domes between them in each quadrant. Vehicles used in this net are going to be hydrogen fuel cell powered self-driven cars that are going to be shared by transport users. Tubes are going to be conformed in two different levels, the top level that is going to be used for transport (high speed trains in Primary Net and self-driven cars in Secondary Net) and the bottom level is going to be split in two “galleries”, one of them is going to be used for water and energy supply (hydrogen fuel and electricity) and the other gallery is going to be used for ventilation (fresh air supply). And that’s all our work and our proposal to create Martropolis, the first city on Mars. Our team has really enjoyed spending time thinking, discussing and looking for the best solutions to face all the Mars challenges. We truly believe that the future of humankind is going to pass through Mars, and to create Martropolis city is going to be the first step into that future. We are convinced of this and therefore in Martropolis team our slogan has always been: “Challenges of today will be solutions tomorrow!” 00.- MARTROPOLIS.First City of Mars.Panel 2.jpg INTRODUCTION Mars, the first planet to be colonized by humans, now is going to be a new Home for a million inhabitants. This challenge must be accomplished by using the most advanced technology that currently humans have on Earth and which will enable to build the first infrastructures there. Thus, humans will be able to establish a self-sustaining city in which their primary needs, including   shelter, air, water, energy, food, and transport will be covered. MARS ENVIROMENT Mars environment features are not easy to handle. There are some key issues (facts, challenges) that must be achieved and solved by using our intelligence and experience in building infrastructures. Mars most important features are:
  • Atmosphere:
    • Mars lost its magnetosphere 4 billion years ago, possibly because of numerous asteroid strikes. Thus, solar wind interacts directly with the Martian ionosphere, and reduces the atmospheric density by stripping away atoms from the outer layer. Liquid water cannot exist on the surface of Mars due to low atmospheric pressure, which is less than 1% of the Earth's. The atmosphere of Mars consists of about 96% carbon dioxide, 1.93% argon and 1.89% nitrogen along with traces of oxygen and water. The atmosphere is quite dusty, containing particulates about 1.5 µm in diameter, which give the Martian sky a tawny colour when seen from the surface. It may take on a pink hue due to iron oxide particles suspended in it.
    • Therefore, we need a system that allows humans to protect themselves from Mars aggressive atmosphere (protection from dust and wind), that allows them to breath common air (to increase oxygen ratio in air) and also to produce and store liquid water at natural conditions (with external pressure similar to the Earth’s).
  • Climate
    • Of all the planets in the Solar System, the seasons of Mars are the most Earth-like, due to the similar tilts of the two planets' rotational axes. The lengths of the Martian seasons are about twice those of Earth's, because Mars's greater distance from the Sun leads to the Martian year being about two Earth years long. Martian surface temperatures vary from lows of about −143 °C (−225 °F) at the winter polar caps to highs of up to 35 °C (95 °F) in equatorial summer. The wide range in temperatures is due to the thin atmosphere which cannot store much solar heat, the low atmospheric pressure and the low thermal inertia of Martian soil. The planet is 1.52 times as far from the Sun as Earth, resulting in just 43% the amount of sunlight. Mars has the largest dust storms in the Solar System. These can vary from a storm over a small area to gigantic storms that cover the entire planet. They tend to occur when Mars is closest to the Sun, and have been shown to increase the global temperature.
    • Therefore, we need a system that allows humans to live in similar temperature conditions than Earth’s (between 0 °C and 25 °C, for example) and heats the environment. We also need a shelter that protects humans from dust storms. Moreover, we need another source, apart from solar power, that generates energy, as efficiency is going to be low on Mars.
  • Hydrology
    • Liquid water cannot exist on the surface of Mars, due to low atmospheric pressure, which is less than 1% of the Earth's, except at the lowest elevations for short periods. The two polar ice caps appear to be made largely of water. The volume of water ice in the south polar ice cap, if melted, would be sufficient to cover the entire planetary surface to a depth of 11 meters (36 ft). A permafrost mantle stretches from the pole to latitudes of about 60°. Large quantities of water ice are thought to be trapped within the thick cryosphere of Mars. Radar data from Mars Express and the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter show large quantities of water ice at both poles (July, 2005) and at middle latitudes (November, 2008).
    • Therefore, we need to study terrain on Mars in order to find underground stored water, because this is the key to establish life support systems. We need water to obtain oxygen (to create fresh air combines with carbon dioxide) and also hydrogen to obtain energy from fuel cells.
  •  Soil and Geology
    • Mars is a terrestrial planet that consists of minerals containing silicon and oxygen, metals, and they are necessary for plants to grow. Some experiments performed by the lander showed that the Martian soil has a basic pH of 7.7, and contains 0.6% of salt perchlorate.
    • One of the oldest valleys on Mars, Mawrth Vallis, holds a special interest because of the presence of phyllosilicate (clay) minerals, which are only made up when water is available, first identified in data from the OMEGA spectrometer on the European Space Agency's Mars Express orbiter. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer (for Mars) has identified aluminium-rich and iron-rich clays, each with a unique distribution. Some of the clays recently discovered by Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter are montmorillonite, kaolinite and nontronite. Near the Mawrth channel is a 200-meterhigh plateau with many exposed layers. Spectral studies have detected clay minerals that present as a sequence of layers. Clay minerals were probably deposited in the Early to Middle Noachian period. Later weathering exposed a variety of minerals such as kaolin (Al2Si2O5(OH)4) alunite (KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6) and jarosite (KFe3+3(OH)6(SO4)2).
    • Therefore, we need raw materials to build infrastructures. Kaolin, Alunite and Jarosite are going to be crucial to manufacture a 3D printing material based on geopolymers (geo-concrete). Magnesium, sodium, potassium and chlorine are also going to be used as nutrients for soil for Hydroponic Farms to produce food. 
01.- MARTROPOLIS. Mawrth Vallis Situation.jpg CHALLENGES AND SOLUTIONS Location First of all, we need to decide where Martropolis, the first city on Mars, will be established. There are several locations that could be suitable, but a crater located besides Mawrth Vallis, near its center and connected to the main channel, seems to be the best of all locations. We have named it Martropolis Crater. The coordinates for the center of this Crater are: Latitude 22°23'21.40"N and Longitude 15°24'16.31"O. The crater shape is a 16km-radius circumference and has an area of 810 km2 and a perimeter of 100km. Martropolis Crater has several and very interesting points that make it the best option for a settlement in Mawrth Vallis. First of all, it is protected against solar winds and aggressive atmosphere events, as it is depressed 150m from the exterior of the crater. Also, his ground is quite flat as it is mainly horizontal, thus big excavations or large earth movements will not be necessary. The crater is connected at the same level with the main Mawrth Vallis channel, which means that we could probably find underground water stored near the surface. Mawrth Vallis channel is going to be the main road to connect Arabian Area, Cryse Area and Terra Are in Oxia Palis Quadrangle, therefore Martorpolis Crater has direct connection with this “Martian highway”.  Martropolis City, the first Martian City, will be established inside the Martropolis Crater. The best situation for our city is near the center of the crater, slightly to the south west area. Martropolis City will be established in a smooth elevation with about 1% slope and near a hill that is 200m higher, which will enable us to store fresh water at the top (covered by a dome) and that could be distributed by gravity to the city through a pressurized pipe system. Martropolis City is going to occupy a 3.55km-radius circle and an area of 40 km2 and it will be a home for the first million habitants on Mars. Future enlargements of Martropolis will be possible, as Martropolis Crater is large enough to allow future expansions around the city. 02.- MARTROPOLIS.Martropolis Crater Situation.jpg Urbanization Martropolis city will be divided in four quarters. These quarters will be interconnected by tubes that will allow high speed transportation between quarters and also will supply fresh air (ventilation), fresh water, hydrogen fuel and electricity. Transportation and supply tubes will cover 25% of the city surface (10 km2) and domes for different applications will cover 75%. The first of these quarters will be named “The Residential Multi-Dwelling Zone”, where enough dwellings will be built in order to provide all the families establishing in Martropolis with shelter. These dwellings will be inside semi-spherical domes of 30m high and 2,830 sqm at the bottom level and approximately 8,500 sqm per dome, which means that with 75% of the surface use for dwelling domes we will be building 2,650 domes. Therefore, each dome must include dwellings for 377 inhabitants. If we consider that a medium family is formed by 3 inhabitants, each dome will have 126 families who will live inside it. Thus, each family will have a dwelling with a medium surface area of 67,5 sqm. Also, community facilities will be built in each home, including kitchens, leisure spaces, living rooms, etc.  The second quarter will be named “The Leisure and Commercial Zone”. This area will be used to deploy all domes, focused on commercial and leisure activities.  25% of Martropolis population will work in this area, given that commerce and business will be vital activity (part) in Martropolis life on a daily basis. Raw materials obtained from mining Mars ground will be crucial for humankind development, and then a big community of dealers and business men will be dealing with these raw materials (with Earth). Also, internal commerce in Martropolis will be developed here. There will be specific domes used as big malls, with a lot of shops and leisure activities for Martropolis inhabitants. The third quarter will be named “The Industrial and Research Zone”. As we have just mentioned, mining is going to be one of the main activities in Martropolis. 25% of Martropolis population will directly work in industrial and research companies, which will be settled in Martropolis. Raw materials and their transformation in basic materials for other industries will be one of the key activities for Martropolis citizens, with a lot of opportunities and new possibilities. Therefore, workers will be mainly all the time occupying these two sectors inside this area. Also, life support systems will be managed from this area, thus it is also estimated that a lot of activities related to maintenance and managing Martropolis facilities will be carried out here. The fourth quarter is going to be focused in “Agriculture (Hydroponic Farms) and Environmental” activities. A large area is needed to deploy farms, as we will need to supply with food all the city. There is also to be included in this area some specific activities related with environment and that are not directly linked with agriculture, like forest areas focused on generating oxygen for the atmosphere. 25% of Martropolis population is going to work in this kind of activities. Finally, there is going to be a central area just in the center of Martropolis called “Martropolis Downtown”. Here is going to be the Municipality of Martropolis and all government domes that will allow that law and order will be a premise in Martropolis. Is estimated that the las 25% of Martropolis population is going to work in public services for the community and will work mainly in this area. 03.- MARTROPOLIS.Martropolis City.Plan and Elevation 2.jpg Building Infraestructure. One of the first problems we have to solve is how to build infrastructures in Mars using local materials. It is possible to transport equipment and machinery from Earth, but is not possible to ship raw materials, as the cost will be unaffordable. Raw Materials – Martian Concrete (geopolymer concrete) As we have seen, soil and geology in Mawrth Vallis will provide us with certain materials that could be used to build first infrastructures in Mars: kaolin (Al2Si2O5(OH)4) alunite (KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6), and jarosite (KFe3+3(OH)6(SO4)2). These materials could be used to build a geopolymer concrete, a Martian concrete that can be 3D printed in order to build infrastructures: Domes and Transport & Supply Tubes. A geopolymer concrete is a composite material made of hardening a geopolymer cement mixed with water and also stone aggregates. All of these materials can be obtained from Mawrth Vallis in Mars. Production of a rock based geopolymer cement requires an aluminosilicate precursor material such as kaolin, an alkaline reagent (for example potassium soluble hydroxides) and water. Kaolin could be obtained directly mining Mawrth Vallis ground and calcinating kaolinite clay at 700ºC in order to obtain metakaolin (Portland Cements will need Calcium Rock to be calcined at 1500ºC which will need much more energy). Alunite (KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6) and jarosite (KFe3+3(OH)6(SO4)2) will give us, after a chemical treatment, KOH a potassium hydroxide commonly called caustic potash that could be diluted in water. Water could be obtained from underground water and rock aggregates could be obtained directly from Martian soil. KOH concentration at 15M (diluted in water) mixed with metakaolin and rock aggregates will produce a concrete of 33.5MPa compression strength, enough to be used as a Martian Concrete. Martian Structures Then, Kaolin, Potassium hydroxide (KOH) diluted in water and rock aggregates, all mixed together will allow us to manufacture a geopolymer concrete with local materials from Mawrth Crater, a kind of Martian concrete, that will allow us to build basic structures just with mass concrete that works in compression. In order to do reinforced concrete, we will need steel bars that would be heavy and with a high cost in order to transport them from Earth to Mars. In the future a specific industry to manufacture steel bars could be built in order to be able to build tensile strength effective structures done with our Martian concrete, but first infrastructures, must be build using just mass concrete and so they must work mainly in compression. Compression working structures done of mass concrete is a technique well known in architectural history. Romans were first humans that used this technology to build domes, like the Rotunda in Agrippa’s Pantheon in Rome: a 43.3m diameter sphere fits under the dome made of roman concrete, with 1.47MPa tensile strenght and 20MPa compression strength. Therefore, Martian structures manufactured of mass concrete are going to copy all roman compression structures called “Domes”. This structure will allow us to build dwellings for people and also facilities to generate water, air, energy and food. Also, it will be possible to build transport and supply tubes with the same idea. Configuration of this elements is perfect to be quickly and easily built using 3D printing processes with a not high sophisticated machinery, mainly robotic self-driven machinery commonly used to build roads in Earth. 09.- MARTROPOLIS.Finished Infraestructure.jpg 3D Printing Process to build Domes and Tubes As we have just mentioned, our 3D Printing process is going to be quick and easy to be applied with basic machinery. We will use robotic bulldozers, excavators, compactors, trucks and water vehicles (modified to inject KOH dissolution using pressure). These machineries could be self-driven or also could be remotely controlled from a space base. The following steps will be applied to build Domes and Tubes:
  • Step 1: Obtaining Raw Materials
    • We need to obtain metakaolin from kaolinite clay, KOH from alunite and jarosite and also to crush rocks from Martian ground. That means that we must installed a not very complex mining facility that will obtain raw materials to obtain the two components that will be used to manufacture our geopolymer concrete: Metakaolin with aggregates (will be our “paper” in our 3d printing process) and KOH water dissolution (that will be our “ink” in our 3d printing process)
  • Step 2: Building Foundations
    • After we have obtained enough raw materials to build a dome or a tube, we need to prepare the ground in order to build foundations. Fortunately, Martropolis crater is nearly levelled and with a slight slope of 1%, so earth movement will not be long. Excavation of foundations will be done in order to support our domes and tubes directly over the rock of Martian ground, moving out of foundations all the dust at Mars surface. Our dome foundations will be geopolymer concrete slabs directly supported over a Martian rocky basement.
  • Step 3: Spreading Kaolin layers
    • After building foundations, we will start to build a embankment as big as the dome or tube we will want to build. This embankment will be created spreading kaolin layers (our “3d printing process paper”). These layers will be spread with the bulldozer and compacted with compactors.
  • Step 4: Injecting KOH Dissolution
    • After each metakaolin layer spread, water vehicles will apply KOH dissolution (our “3d printing process ink”) in those parts of the layer that we want to generate polymer concrete. We will draw over the layer with our KOH dissolution ink, the plan cross section of the dome related to the layer we have previously spread. KOH dissolution must be injected in order to penetrate inside kaolin and allow to start the chemical reaction with metakaolin that will produce geopolymer concrete. Rest of kaolin spread in the layer will only support next layer over it and will not be hardened as KOH dissolution mixed will be applied only where we want to build geopolymer concrete. This means that all metakaolin applied in layer at the end of the process will be able to be recycled for further structures.
  • Step 5: Repeating the cycle
    • We will repeat the cycle as many times as needed to build the whole dome or tube, spreading metakaolin and injecting KOH dissolution.
  • Step 6: Digging the embankment
    • When the printing process has finished we will have done a big embankment that has inside it our dome manufactured of geopolymer concrete and supported by metakaolin layers. So, after several days (compression strength is early achieved by geopolymer concrete) we can start digging the outside area of the embankment and discovering the dome or the tube.
  • Step 7: Digging inside the dome
    • After the dome is discovered, we can start digging inside it as compression strength needed for the mass concrete structure is achieved. At the base of the embankment we will leave several layers of metakaolin in order to protect foundations and stablish a higher level at the base of the dome in order not to be covered in the future with solar wind dust.
  • Step 8: Finished structure
    • At the end of the printing process we will have obtained the final structure of a Dome or a Tube.
04.- MARTROPOLIS.Building Infraestructure.3D Printing a Dome 4.jpg Domes and Tubes will allow humans to set up a controlled environment inside the dome with a friendly pressurized and heated atmosphere and with a shelter in order to be protected from the outside effects of Martian environment (dust, asteroid impacts, solar winds, etc). These are going to be the basic infrastructure that will allow in the future facilities inside to generate water (we need 1Atm of pressure to store water in our pressurized atmosphere inside the dome), to generate energy (we will obtain hydrogen from Artificial Leafs and Electrolysis in order to be used as fuel in fuel cells), to generate food (we will set up hydroponic farms inside the domes) and also to generate dwellings and high speed transport tubes to connect different domes and quadrants of Martropolis. Water & Air Facility. Currently in Mars, liquid water boils at 0 °C, over much of its surface. Even at the depths of the Hellas basin, any water is close to its boiling point of 10 °C and will dry out quickly. Ice also evaporates into the atmosphere over geological timescales - and most of the equatorial regions are thought to be dry to depths of tens of meters. As its axial tilt varies, Mars atmosphere is sometimes thicker, and liquid water may then form on the surface,  but any dormant life in the top few meters of soil would be destroyed over periods of millions of years by cosmic radiation. Potential places where we can find water in Mars include lakes formed in the higher latitudes after cometary or meteorite impacts, or as a result of volcanism. Covered by ice, these may remain liquid for centuries, or up to a few thousand years for the largest impacts. The planet may also have underground trapped layers of water heated by geothermal hotspots. Also, there are suggestions that Mars may have a deep hydrosphere, a liquid layer below its cryosphere, a few kilometres below the surface. Obtaining water from the hydrosphere is the most feasible way to obtain water in Mars for human cities. The Mars cryosphere is the layer of permanently frozen permafrost. In higher latitudes, it starts a few centimetres below the surface, and may continue down for several kilometres. In equatorial regions, the surface of Mars may be completely dry down to a kilometre or more, so the cryosphere starts at the base of that dry layer. If the Mars hydrosphere exists, it lies below the cryosphere, and is a layer where the ice is kept liquid by geothermal heating, and prevented from evaporating by the overlying layers of ice. We don't have any evidence yet of a hydrosphere, but we have evidence of a deep subsurface cryosphere. This evidence is in the form of hydrogen / deuterium isotope ratios in Martian meteorites, which give indirect evidence that Mars must have a subsurface reservoir of water, most likely in the form of ice. We clearly think that the most feasible way to obtain water is directly from hydrosphere. The solution will need to install drilling machines that drills shafts from the surface till we reach the liquid water stored underground and allows to extract water and store it at the surface. Currently some liquid water may occur transiently on the Martian surface today, but only under certain conditions. No large standing bodies of liquid water exist, because the atmospheric pressure at the surface averages just 600 pascals (0.087 psi)—about 0.6% of Earth's mean sea level pressure—and because the global average temperature is far too low (210 K (−63 °C; −82 °F)), leading to either rapid evaporation (sublimation) or rapid freezing. That means that we must do drilling works inside one of the domes we have previously built and that has been pressurized and heated. We must build a specific facility that includes drilling equipment to reach hydrosphere, compressors to increase pressure inside the dome till we reach 1Atm, and then heat the dome's inside atmosphere over 0°C in order to store water in an open water tank at the surface covered by the dome, where we have simulated an atmosphere similar to Earth. Energy must be obtained from photovoltaic panels at the beginning, but after we start to obtain water, we can use other ways to obtain energy like artificial photosynthesis or fuel cells, as we will see after. Probably we will need to desalinate water and purify it if it is going to be used to drink directly by humans. So, a desalination plant will probably be needed depending of how salty is water obtained. Also in this facility, we are going to generate two other components that are going to be needed in our city, oxygen and hydrogen. The way to do this is using electrolysis to obtain from water both components. This process is rather energy dependent as we need to generate an electricity current thorough water in order to separate hydrogen an oxygen. This energy will be provided by photovoltaics panels installed at the top of the dome. Oxygen will we used to generate a fresh air atmosphere inside the water facility dome, that will be connected by tubes infrastructure to other domes by ventilation galleries. Hydrogen will be stored in tanks and would be the alternative way to generate energy to the photovoltaic solar panels using fuel cells. One of the main advantages of hydrogen to be used as fuel is that can be stored in tanks and used when needed. Hydrogen is going to be used also as fuel by high speed trains that connects domes and allow people to moves between them through the tubes systems. As mentioned, water facility is one of the most important parts of our city, as water is going to be the base of life in Martropolis. Without water nothing is possible, with water life is going to grow strong and powerful in our city. 07.- MARTROPOLIS.Water & Air Facility 2.jpg Energy & Air Facility Almost as important as water, is energy. We are not going to be able to supply Matropolis with fossil fuels that come from Earth, as a huge amount of energy is needed to run a city, and specially this one that is going to be built in a hostile and aggressive environment, like the Martian one. There are going to be several ways to obtain energy to our city. Some of them are currently well known and must be developed to improve performance an adapt themselves to Martian environment, but other ones are cutting hedge technologies that must be developed intensively as they are going to be key ones for Martian life. Therefore, we are going to use these technologies to obtain and generate energy directly in Mars: Photovoltaic solar panels – Electricity from the Sunlight Photovoltaics (PV) is a term which covers the conversion of light into electricity using semiconducting materials that exhibit the photovoltaic effect, a phenomenon studied in physics, photochemistry, and electrochemistry. Photovoltaics are best known as a method for generating electric power by using solar cells to convert energy from the sun into a flow of electrons by the photovoltaic effect. Solar cells produce direct current electricity from sunlight which can be used to power equipment or to recharge a battery. Photovoltaic power generation employs solar panels composed of a number of solar cells containing a photovoltaic material. Solar photovoltaic power generation has long been seen as a clean energy technology which draws upon the planet’s most plentiful and widely distributed renewable energy source, the sun. Obtaining energy from photovoltaic panels is rather a mature technology that currently is being used to generate energy from the sun. Mars is not so near to the sun like Earth so energy generation is going to be lower than in Earth. That means that we need to increase performance of the panel in order to obtain as much kWh per sqm as possible. Artificial Photosynthesis (artificial leafs) – Fuel (Hydrogen) and Oxygen from Water, Sunlight and CO2 Artificial photosynthesis is a chemical process that replicates the natural process of photosynthesis, a process that converts sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide into carbohydrates and oxygen; as an imitation of a natural process it is biomimetic. The term, artificial photosynthesis, is commonly used to refer to any scheme for capturing and storing the energy from sunlight in the chemical bonds of a fuel (a solar fuel). Photocatalytic water splitting converts water into hydrogen ions and oxygen, and is a major research topic of artificial photosynthesis. The purpose of artificial photosynthesis is to produce a fuel from sunlight that can be stored conveniently and used when sunlight is not available, by using direct processes, that is, to produce a solar fuel. With the development of catalysts able to reproduce the major parts of photosynthesis, water and sunlight would ultimately be the only needed sources for clean energy production. The only by-product would be oxygen, and production of a solar fuel has the potential to be cheaper than gasoline. One process for the creation of a clean and affordable energy supply is the development of photocatalytic water splitting under solar light. This method of sustainable hydrogen production is a major objective for the development of alternative energy systems. It is also predicted to be one of the more, if not the most, efficient ways of obtaining hydrogen from water. The conversion of solar energy into hydrogen via a water-splitting process assisted by photo-semiconductor catalysts is one of the most promising technologies currently in development. This process has the potential for large quantities of hydrogen to be generated in an ecologically sound manner. The conversion of solar energy into a clean fuel (Hydrogen) under ambient conditions is one of the greatest challenges facing scientists in the twenty-first century. Hydrogen is going to be the fuel we are going to use in Martropolis. Hydrogen is going to be stored in tanks as a chemical energy in order to be used in fuel cells and transformed to electricity when needed. Hydrogen is going to be used in our city whenever we are not able to produce electricity from photovoltaics panels. Hydrogen fuel cells  – Electricity and Heat from Fuel (Hydrogen) and Oxygen A fuel cell is an electrochemical cell that converts the chemical energy from a fuel into electricity through an electrochemical reaction of hydrogen-containing fuel with oxygen or another oxidizing agent. Fuel cells are different from batteries in requiring a continuous source of fuel and oxygen (usually from air) to sustain the chemical reaction, whereas in a battery the chemical energy comes from chemicals already present in the battery. Fuel cells can produce electricity continuously for as long as fuel and oxygen are supplied. Stationary fuel cells are used for backup power generation. Fuel cells are very useful as power sources in remote locations, such as spacecraft, remote weather stations, large parks, communications centers, rural locations including research stations, and in certain military applications. A fuel cell system running on hydrogen can be compact and lightweight, and have no major moving parts. Because fuel cells have no moving parts and do not involve combustion, in ideal conditions they can achieve up to a very high reliability. This is very important in Mars were reliability of systems is going to be basic for Martropolis city. Since fuel cell electrolyzer systems do not store fuel in themselves and will rely on external storage units, they can be successfully applied in large-scale energy storage, like we are going to use in Martropolis. There are many different types of stationary fuel cells so efficiencies vary, but most are between 40% and 60% energy efficient. Additionally, fuel cell's waste heat is going to be used to heat the atmosphere inside the dome, so system efficiency can increase to 85%. Hydrogen fuel cells are going to allow us first to store energy. This is going to be basic as we are not going to have sunlight permanently in Mars to generate electricity from Photovoltaics or Artificial Photosynthesis, and we need energy supply continuously in Martropolis City. Secondly, Hydrogen fuel cells are going to be used as fuel for high speed trains that will allow transport between domes through the tubes net, and also for external vehicles and machinery that are going to move and work outside atmosphere, out of the domes and tubes. Infrastructure Robots, Maintenance machinery and equipment and vehicles will be much of the time working out of the protected ambient of Martropolis, so fuel cells are going to be the perfect system to produce energy and electricity for them.
05.- MARTROPOLIS.Energy & Air Facility.jpg
Food Facilities Farming on Mars share many similarities with farming on a space station or space colony, but would lack the complexity of microgravity found in the latter. Each environment would also have differences in the availability of inputs to the space agriculture process: inorganic material needed for plant growth, soil media, insolation, relative availability of carbon dioxide, nitrogen and oxygen, and so forth. The existence of farm facility in Martropolis will aid the creation of a sustainable environment, as plants can be used to recycle wastewater, generate oxygen (10m² of crops produces 25% of the daily requirements of 1 person, or about 180-210grams of oxygen), continuously purify the air and recycle faeces of the city. This essentially allows the food facility to turn Martropolis into an artificial ecosystem with a hydrological cycle and nutrient recycling    Food production is a non-trivial task and is likely to be one of the most labor-intensive, and vital, tasks of Martropolis. A variety of technical challenges will face Martropolis Citizens who attempt to do Martian agriculture. These include:
  • The effect of reduced gravity on various greenhouse crops
  • Reduced lighting in some locations; Mars receives about half of the solar radiation as Earth does, and any pressurized greenhouse enclosure will further reduce the light reaching plants.
  • Plant growth under conditions of lower pressure atmosphere, because the higher the pressure inside a greenhouse the more massive the structural elements and enclosure of the greenhouse must be. At one tenth of standard atmospheric pressure plants can still function.
  • Effects of dealing with the higher radiation without the protective effect of Earth's atmosphere and the Van Allen radiation belts will require shielding or mitigation
In order to accomplish these challenges, our Martropolis Food Facilities are going to be installed also inside specific domes which a controlled atmosphere (pressure and temperature) trying to simulate Earth’s environment. Domes are also going to protect crops from radiation. Farming techniques that are going to be used in Martropolis are going to be Hydroponics. Hydroponics is a subset of hydroculture, the method of growing plants without soil, using mineral nutrient solutions in a water solvent. Terrestrial plants may be grown with only their roots exposed to the mineral solution, or the roots may be supported by an inert medium, such as perlite or gravel. Food facilities will also include some specific farms to grow cattle and fish in order to supply Martropolis with meat and fish and not only vegetables. Open spaces domes focused on cattle growing are needed. All these specific facilities will be included in the “Agriculture and Environmental Quadrant” of the city. 08.- MARTROPOLIS.Food 1.jpg Dwellings & Transport Facilities Dwellings Dwellings are going to be basic for citizens of Martropolis in order to generate a friendly environment that allows people to relax and live with their families. As the basic infrastructure element that we are going to deploy in Martropolis is a dome, each of these elements is going to be a collective dwelling infrastructure where families are going to live in private departments to develop their own private life. Also they are going to have collective facilities for leisure and community services, where community life is going to be developed. As previously mentioned, these dwellings are going to be stablished inside semi-spherical domes of 30m high and 2,830 sqm at the bottom level. Each dome is going to have between 6-8 levels, approximately 8,500 sqm per dome focused on private spaces for families (bedrooms, private lavatories and living rooms) and 6,500-8,500 sqm for community services (kitchens, leisure spaces, dining rooms, life support systems - water & energy and pressure & heat, etc). That means that each dome must include private dwellings for 377 inhabitants. If we consider that a medium family is formed by 3 inhabitants, each dome will have 126 families living inside. That means that each family will have a private dwelling with a medium surface area of 67,5 sqm without community areas. Life support facilities will be at the bottom level and will include water tanks of fresh water, energy storage (electricity batteries and also hydrogen tanks), pressure systems to maintain 1Atm of pressure inside domes, and also heat systems to allow air temperature between 15-25ºC. At this level, the lower part of tubes that connect domes are going to get inside the dome. These tubes will connect different domes through galleries that will supply each dome with energy, water, fresh air (ventilation) and fuel (hydrogen). The second level will be the access level to each dome. High speed transport, self driven cars would be able to access to the dome at this level directly from the upper level of the tube that gets into the dome. This level will also include community services like kitchens, dining rooms, etc. Third level of the domes will include family’s private dwellings and could be accessed through the entrance to the dome from the tubes, and going up from the second to the third level. This level is going to be extremely important for Martropolis citizens as it is going to be the only area of the dome that is going to have private spaces. This is basic for families as they are going to need privacy in order to develop their lives. The top level of the domes is going to include all community services for leisure and entertainment. Top area of the dome is going to be provided with direct access to sunlight using solar collectors that will simulate an outside natural environment Earth’s like. At this level, Martropolis citizens could do sports, play games, do community activities and will have children playgrounds, water fountains and green parks. This is going to be the most comfortable and privileged area of the dome, where relax and leisure for dome inhabitants is going to be provided. Transport As previously mentioned in the Urbanization chapter, transport in Martropolis is going to be able using a dense system of semi-cylinder shape tunnel connections between domes that we have called “tubes”. A group of tubes than connects different domes will conform a net. Tubes and nets are going to be the basic units of transport infrastructure of the city and will be like veins and arteries of Martropolis for our citizens. There is going to be two kinds of nets in Martropolis, the “Primary Net” which is going to be used for long distance transport in the city between quadrants and with Martropolis Downtown, in the centre of the city. And the “Secondary Net” which is going to be used for interconnect domes between them in each quadrant. “Primary Net” of tubes is going to be the backbone of our city as will allow the transport of citizens and goods between quadrants and also with the centre of the city. The transport system that is going to be used is high speed trains powered with hydrogen fuel cells. High capacity and fast trains are going to be used in order to guarantee a high frequency connectivity between different parts of the city. Primary Net is going to have stations in the borders of each quadrant that will connect with Secondary Net. “Secondary Net” of tubes is going to be like the nervous system of our city. These tubes are going to interconnect all the domes inside each quadrant between them allowing short distance movements of citizens between different parts of the quadrant. Vehicles used in this net are going to be hydrogen fuel cell powered self-driven cars that are going to be shared by transport users. Specific big capacity parking for these vehicles will be placed in each Primary Net Station in order to allow a combined transport system for citizens using cars for short distance transport inside quadrants and high-speed trains for long distance transport between quadrants and also with Downtown. Not only Primary Net, but also Secondary Net consist of a group of several tubes. Theses tubes are going to be built using the same process than domes, following a semi-cylinder form that structurally works in compression and it is easy to be built using robotic self-driven civil works machinery and local raw materials. Same material than domes is going to be used in tubes, our Martian geopolymer concrete, made with raw materials that could be find on Mars ground. Tubes are going to be conformed in two different levels, the top level that is going to be used for transport (high speed trains in Primary Net and self-driven cars in Secondary Net) and the bottom level is going to be split in two “galleries”, one of them is going to be used for water and energy supply (hydrogen fuel and electricity) and the other gallery is going to be used for ventilation (fresh air supply). When these tubes arrive a dome, the bottom level will get into the Life Support System level of dwellings (bottom level), where all systems are installed. The second level, or the access level of domes, will be connected to the top level of tubes and Martropolis citizens are going to use this access to move and visit other places of the city using the Primary or Secondary Net transport system.  06.- MARTROPOLIS.Dwellings & Transport 2.jpg SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Martropolis means hope for humankind. Mars is a new world full of possibilities and opportunities for people. Citizens of Martropolis, first city on Mars, are going to be pioneers, as settlers, in this new and fantastic world. But as it is used to be, opportunities are commonly linked to challenges that must be solved. That is why Martropolis team has been working hard during this two months to classify all the challenges we must solve to reach our goal and propose a specific technological advanced solution for each challenge. In Martropolis team our slogan is: “Challenges of today will be solutions tomorrow!” At the beginning we realize that all the challenges that future citizens of Mars must solve were linked to the Mars Environment, where the atmosphere is too aggressive, full of dust storms, the climate is too cold and the pressure is quite low. Also, water is needed for live and local minerals must be used as raw materials to build first Martian structures in Martropolis. First thing to do at the beginning was to find a place in Mawrth Vallis in Mars to settle Martropolis. There were several locations that could be suitable, but the best of all was a crater located in the center of Mawrth Vallis and connected to the main chanel. We have named it as "Martropolis Crater". Coordinates of the center of the Crater are: Latitude 22°23'21.40"N and Longitude 15°24'16.31"O. The crater shape is a circumference of 16km of radius, an area of 810 km2 and a perimeter of 100kms. Martropolis crater is protected from solar winds and aggressive atmosphere events as it is depressed 150m from the outside of the crater. Also his ground is quite flat as it is mainly horizontal so it is not going to be needed big excavation and large earth movements. The crater is connected at the same level with the main Mawrth Vallis channel, so that means that probably we can find underground water stored near the surface. Mawrth Vallis channel is going to be the main road to connect Arabian Area, Cryse Area and Terra Are in Oxia Palis Quadrangle, so Martorpolis Crater has a direct connection with this “Martian highway”. Inside Martropolis Crater we will stablish Martropolis City, first Martian City Martropolis City is going to occupy a circle of 3.55km of radius and an area of 40 km2 and it is going to be home for first one million habitants of Mars. Martropolis city is going to be divided in four quarters. These quarters are going to be interconnected by tubes that will allow high speed transportation between quarters and also will supply fresh air (ventilation), fresh water, hydrogen fuel and also electricity. Transportation and supply tubes will cover 25% of the surface of the city (10 km2) and domes for different applications will cover 75%. Martropolis city is divided in four quadrants. The first one is “The Residential Multi-Dwelling Zone”, where we are going to build enough dwellings to provide shelter to all the families that are going to stablish in Martropolis. The second one is “The Leisure and Commercial Zone”, which is going to be used to deploy all domes that are going to be focused on commercial and leisure activities. The third one is called “The Industrial and Research Zone”, which is going to be where Mars citizens are going to work in industrial (mostly mining) and research companies. The fourth quarter is going to be focused in “Agriculture (Hydroponic Farms) and Environmental” activities. Also, there is going to be a “Martropolis Downtown”, where is going to be settled the Municipality of Martropolis and all government domes that will allow that law and order will be a premise in Martropolis. After finding the best location for Martropolis, we realize that we must solve the problem to build basic infraestructures of the city, creating shelter and a transport system in the city. As we have seen, soil and geology in Mawrth Vallis provide us with certain materials that could be used to build first infrastructures in Mars: kaolin (Al2Si2O5(OH)4) alunite (KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6), and jarosite (KFe3+3(OH)6(SO4)2). These materials were used to define a geopolymer concrete, a Martian concrete that can be 3D printed in order to build infrastructure: Domes and Transport & Supply Tubes. Both of them could be built using 3d printing in situ technology applied by robotic self-driven civil works machinery. These domes allow Mars citizens to be protected against outside aggressive environment and also allow them to build a friendly environment inside with similar conditions that exists in Earth: a cool temperature and a normal pressure. When we have found a solution to create shelter and a transport infrastructure for Martropolis, the next step was to guarantee life conditions in the city. That is why we need to obtain water directly in Mars. Solution was to obtain it from underground in the Hydrosphere of Mars. Hydrosphere lies below the cryosphere, and is a layer where the ice is kept liquid by geothermal heating, and prevented from evaporating by the overlying layers of ice. To obtain water, we need to install drilling machines that drills from the surface a shaft till we reach the liquid water stored underground and allows to extract water and store it at the surface in a previously heated and pressurized dome. Also, we are going to generate two other components that are going to be needed in our city, oxygen and hydrogen. The way to do this is using electrolysis to obtain from water both components. Oxygen will we used to generate a fresh air atmosphere inside the water facility dome, that will be connected by tubes infrastructure to other domes by ventilation galleries. Hydrogen will be stored in tanks and would be the alternative way to generate energy to the photovoltaic solar panels using fuel cells. Hydrogen is going to be used also as fuel by high speed trains that connects domes and allow people to moves between them through the tubes systems. As mentioned, water facility is one of the most important parts of our city, as water is going to be the base of life in Martropolis. Without water nothing is possible, with water life is going to grow strong and powerful in our city. Almost as important as water, is energy. We are not going to be able to supply Martropolis with fossil fuels that come from earth, as a huge amount of energy is needed to run a city, and specially this one that is going to be built in a hostile and aggressive environment, like the Martian one. There are going to be several ways to obtain energy to our city. First method to obtain energy is directly using photovoltaics system at the top of the domes, generating electricity that could be stored in batteries. Second way to generate energy is creating hydrogen as a solar fuel obtained using artificial photosynthesis. The purpose of artificial photosynthesis is to produce a fuel from sunlight that can be stored conveniently and used when sunlight is not available, by using direct processes, that is, to produce Hydrogen as a solar fuel. Hydrogen is going to be the fuel that we are going to use in Martropolis. Hydrogen is going to be stored in tanks as a chemical energy in order to be used in fuel cells and transformed to electricity when needed using fuel cells. A fuel cell is an electrochemical cell that converts the chemical energy from a fuel into electricity through an electrochemical reaction of hydrogen-containing fuel with oxygen or another oxidizing agent. Fuel cells are different from batteries in requiring a continuous source of fuel and oxygen (usually from air) to sustain the chemical reaction, whereas in a battery the chemical energy comes from chemicals already present in the battery. Fuel cells can produce electricity continuously for as long as fuel and oxygen are supplied. Hydrogen is going to be used in our city whenever we are not able to produce electricity from photovoltaics panels and also as a power source for our trains and vehicles transport systems. Farming on Mars share many similarities with farming on a space station or space colony, but would lack the complexity of microgravity found in the latter. Each environment would also have differences in the availability of inputs to the space agriculture process: inorganic material needed for plant growth, soil media, insolation, relative availability of carbon dioxide, nitrogen and oxygen, and so forth. In order to accomplish these challenges, our Martropolis Food Facilities are going to be installed also inside specific domes which a controlled atmosphere (pressure and temperature) trying to simulate Earth’s environment. Domes are also going to protect crops from radiation. Farming techniques that are going to be used in Martropolis are going to be Hydroponics. Hydroponics is a subset of hydroculture, the method of growing plants without soil, using mineral nutrient solutions in a water solvent. Terrestrial plants may be grown with only their roots exposed to the mineral solution, or the roots may be supported by an inert medium, such as perlite or gravel. Food facilities will also include some specific farms to grow cattle and fish in order to supply Martropolis with meat and fish and not only vegetables. Open spaces domes focused on cattle growing are needed. All these specific facilities will be included in the “Agriculture and Environmental Quadrant” of the city. Now we have solved a big part of the challenge, we have found possible solutions to obtain directly for Mars the key components that allows life: Water, Air (Oxygen), Energy (electricity and a fuel) and Food. So, we can focus our efforts trying to go more deeply in details and try to define how life could go ahead in Martropolis, looking for a specific solution for dwellings inside domes and transport. Dwellings are going to be basic for citizens of Martropolis in order to generate a friendly environment that allows people to relax and live with their families. As the basic infrastructure element that we are going to deploy in Martropolis is a dome, each of these elements is going to be a collective dwelling infrastructure where families are going to live in private departments to develop their own private life. Also they are going to have collective facilities for leisure and community services, where community life is going to be developed. As previously mentioned, these dwellings are going to be stablished inside semi-spherical domes of 30m high and 2,830 sqm at the bottom level. Each dome is going to have between 6-8 levels, approximately 8,500 sqm per dome focused on private spaces for families (bedrooms, private lavatories and living rooms) and 6,500-8,500 sqm for community services (kitchens, leisure spaces, dining rooms, life support systems - water & energy and pressure & heat, etc). These facilities guarantee that each family has a private space as a dwelling and also some community services covered by community spaces. Transport in Martropolis is going to be able using a dense system of semi-cylinder shape tunnel connections between domes that we have called “tubes”. A group of tubes than connects different domes will conform a net. Tubes and nets are going to be the basic units of transport infrastructure of the city and will be like veins and arteries of Martropolis for our citizens. There is going to be two kinds of nets in Martropolis, the “Primary Net” which is going to be used for long distance transport in the city between quadrants and with Martropolis Downtown, in the centre of the city. High capacity and fast trains are going to be used in order to guarantee a high frequency connectivity between different parts of the city. Primary Net is going to have stations in the borders of each quadrant that will connect with Secondary Net. “Secondary Net” is going to be used for interconnect domes between them in each quadrant. Vehicles used in this net are going to be hydrogen fuel cell powered self-driven cars that are going to be shared by transport users. Tubes are going to be conformed in two different levels, the top level that is going to be used for transport (high speed trains in Primary Net and self-driven cars in Secondary Net) and the bottom level is going to be split in two “galleries”, one of them is going to be used for water and energy supply (hydrogen fuel and electricity) and the other gallery is going to be used for ventilation (fresh air supply). When these tubes arrive a dome, the bottom level will get into the Life Support System level of dwellings (bottom level), where all systems are installed. The second level, or the access level of domes, will be connected to the top level of tubes and Martropolis citizens are going to use this access to move and visit other places of the city using the Primary or Secondary Net transport system.  00.- MARTROPOLIS.First City of Mars.Panel 2.jpg And that’s all our work and our proposals to create Martropolis, first city of Mars. Our team has really enjoyed spending time thinking, discussing and looking for the best solutions to face all the Mars challenges. We truly believe that the future of humankind is going to pass through Mars, and to create Martropolis city is going to be the first step into that future. We are convinced of this! And just to finish, I would like to congratulate all the support team and companies involved in Mars Home Planet initiative, it is a fantastic idea that has engaged a lot of people allowing us to dream a little bit with the future. Also thank you very much to all colleagues of other teams that are participating in Mars Urbanization Challenge, as their ideas have inspired us a lot in order to work hard and to open our mind to new solutions. And finally, also thank you very much to my daughter Amalia, who is too young to participate in this challenge (a pity, but she is 7 years old!), but has helped our team a lot, drawing, thinking and participating in several of the ideas that are included in this proposal. Regards, Daniel & María Teresa Martropolis, The First City on Mars Team Sand drawing of a space man building Martropolis.jpg
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